Page 11 - humanethology

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A study of the evolution of organic life - by Gerd Ney
Bacterial cells are the smaller cells but have affinity with larger Prokaryote and even more with Eukaryote cells with a their
rigid peptidoglycan containing protective wall.
Prokaryote cells differ from Eukaryote cells as their nucleus and DNA is not protected through a membrane. They are
closely related to bacteria and Archaea. They are the most spread organisms on Earth and survive in hot sulphuric volcanic
temperatures as well as in Antarctic ice. They are enabled to hibernate for 250 million of years; possibly it could last much
Prokaryotes have a higher metabolic rate, using photosynthesis, hydrogen sulphide or organic compounds as nutrients,
are growing faster but have a shorter generation sequence. Prokaryote cells are much smaller than Eukaryote cells and
are mostly single living ones. Generally spoken, biological cells are enabled to reproduce about 50 times, called Hayflick
limit. Stem cells have a higher reproduction rate and nerve cells hardly at all. Some cells are producing a protein called
‘Telomerase’ and enabled to overcome the Hayflick limit, they are becoming ‘immortal’. However, we have to conclude the
process of cloning is already an ingenious exercise of immortalisation by itself.
Eukaryote cells but also all others of previous stages are the organisms we are made of – 100 trillion are building our
human body (plus 200 trillions of bacteria). Their cell structure is more complex, DNA Genome is concentrated in the
membrane protected nucleus, compared to Prokaryote cells. They have –like prokaryotes – organelles to fulfil physical
functions like our inner organs are doing. However, Eukaryote cells are known as building stones of multicellular life. They
are moving with slender cytoplasmic projections called flagellas.
In a human body there are about 210 distinct cell types of all historic ages since creation. The cell structure of Eukaryotes
is much more complex compared to the Prokaryotes. The DNA genome is located inside the Nucleus and membrane
protected. Eukaryotes dispose exclusively of some organelles like mitochondrias, the power engines, which through intake
of nutrients and oxygen, produce energy.
They are able to form an early endo-symbiosis. In 1905 the Russian Konstantin Mereschowkowski established the
Endosymbiosis theory which today is mostly accepted by scientists. This theory is based on the thought that originally
intruding parasitical bacteria lived from cell’s nutrients as well. They became evolutionary involved with processing
of nutrition for the cell as well and were then incorporated into cell’s life altogether and settled as organelles, the
predecessors of organs in a multi- cellular body.
A well performing assimilation! It may be questioned if this well known fact is considered when treating people medically.
Amoeba is related to Eukaryote cells. The amoeba proteus has 290 billion base pairs in its genome, by contrast human
count only for 2.9 billion.
One species of amoeba the xenophyophores was a single cell but grew up to astonishingly 10 cm during the Cambrian
Ernst Haeckel presented in 1874 the Colonial Theory, which unite cells as a symbiosis of different organisms of the same
species. This theory is still today regarded as valid.
Pluri Cellular (instead Multi cellular) Life is a cooperation having evolved in different shapes. One could describe it as a
permanent or temporary cooperation between cells without creation of a merged chromosome basis. Prokaryote cells
created early multi or pluri cellular life already billions of years ago (Cyanobacteria).
True Multi cellular life has to solve the problem of regenerating the whole organism and this makes other means than
cell division necessary (egg, spores or sperm). It is questionable if Pluricellular organisms took influence on the human
metabolism. Many plants are enabled to reproduce not only sexually but also through propagating and this is nothing else
than a cloning process, that every gardener knows.
Metabolism is surely the source for energy, mental strength, growth as well as other life activating attributions also for
elimination of waste. It is taken generally as one process relating to different parts of the organism.
It is not sufficiently taken care that cells as well as organs are originating from different evolutionary backgrounds but are
working as one unit. Therefore the medical advice concentrates on one specific organ or symptom and doesn’t relate to
the evolutionary history of specific metabolic processes which were created under different circumstances, for different
purposes and different organic conditions, but working as one unit. Medical advice is often concentrated on specific organs
or symptoms and disregards generally the sum of metabolic functions and therefore has health threatening consequences
like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular problems. These are originated on early developments with unique functions but
overall structural influences.