Biological cells

Firstly, cells are classified as biological cells if they are self-contained and self-maintained. Cells are converting nutrients into energy, carry out psychological and physical functions out and exercising intra-cell metabolism through vacuoles. The main responsibility of a cell is to reproduce through cell division and this has been very likely since they were able to divide themselves. Each cell stores its own set of DNA instructions whose elementary patterns are the patterns, from where we are operating and which we are discussing in this writing, keeping in mind their development occurred differently between each other. Some people may want to differentiate: They assume to possess their own capable DNA Double Helix and the cells have theirs – just to keep some superior distance and completely oblivious of the fact that their whole body is the one united organism but all cells are individuals.

Viruses are a species probably of the older cells; however, they are not always regarded as independent biological cells, because they need a host for metabolic purposes and reproduction. It is a grey line, if they are biological cells or not, but I think if some essential functions are ‘contracted out’, it may create a symbiosis, but this should not change the overall view. This would support opinions to classify them as early predecessors or parallel developments of extremophile cells.

The oldest cell is probably RNA, which is capable to replicate and to store information (RNA world hypothesis). Such early pre-cells differed hardly from matter. They were immobile and vegetating passively from surrounding minerals and gases and the rays of the Sun, but they also showed signs of awareness, because they are the ones informing us about the earliest elementary patterns relating to metabolic functions.

As independent and early biological cells are regarded Archaea with three sub groups (Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Korachaeota) as most robust life form called extremophiles and probably are spread over the whole Galaxy.

 

The complexity and function of organs of the Eukaryote cell has been copied at a later stage by multicellular life. Microscopical viewing by enlargements between only 100 and 1000 times is in a way not exciting as the organs of a cell don’t show yet the refinement. With modern electronic microscopes we are revealing cell life in a fascinating environment of its own. If enlarged to the size of a house, for instance, we have to change our opinion about a primitive stage of life.

Dr Michael Denton published a imaginative view of such a scenario:

“What we would then see would be an object of unparalleled complexity and adaptive design. On the surface of the cell we would see millions of openings, like portholes of a vast spaceship, opening and closing to allow a continual stream of materials flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these openings we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity. We would see endless highly organized corridors and conduits branching in every direction away from the perimeter of the cell, some leading to the central memory bank in the nucleus and others to assembly plants and processing units. The nucleus itself would be a large spherical chamber, resembling a geodesic dome inside of which we would see , all neatly stacked together in ordered arrays, the many meters of coiled chains of DNA molecules. A huge range of products and raw materials would shuffle along all the manifold conduits in a highly ordered fashion to and from all the various assembly plants in the outer region of the cell.

We would wonder at the level of control implicit in the movement of so many objects down so many seemingly endless conduits, all in perfect unison. We would see all around us, in every direction we looked, all sorts of robot- like machines. We would notice that the simplest of the functional components of the cell, the protein molecules, were astonishingly complex pieces of molecular machinery each one consisting of about 3000 atoms arranged in highly organized 3-D spatial conformation. We would wonder even more as we watched the strangely purposeful activities of these weird molecular machines, particularly when we realized that, despite all our accumulated knowledge of physics and chemistry, the task of designing one such molecular machine - that is one functional protein molecule – would be completely beyond our capacity at present and will not be achieved until at least at the beginning of the next century. Yet the life of the cell depends on the integrated activities of thousands, certainly tens, and probably hundreds of thousands of different molecules.

We would see that nearly every feature of our own advanced machines had its analogue in the cell: artificial languages and their decoding systems, memory banks for information storage and retrieval, elegant control systems regulating the automated assembly of parts and components, error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control, assembly processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction. In fact so deep would be the feeling deja-vu, so persuasive the analogy, that much of the terminology we would use to describe this fascinating molecular reality would be borrowed from the world of the late twentieth century technology.

…… However, it would be a factory which would have one capacity not equalled in any of our own most advanced machines, for it would be capable of replicating its entire structure within a matter of a few hours………….” He resumes that Darwin may have had second thoughts to write his observations down if he would have known about the perfection of the Eukaryote cell.

Bacterial cells are the smaller cells but have affinity with larger Prokaryote and even more with Eukaryote cells with a their rigid peptidoglycan containing protective wall.

Prokaryote cells differ from Eukaryote cells as their nucleus and DNA is not protected through a membrane. They are closely related to bacteria and Archaea. They are the most spread organisms on Earth and survive in hot sulphuric volcanic temperatures as well as in Antarctic ice. They are enabled to hibernate for 250 million of years; possibly it could last much longer.

Prokaryotes have a higher metabolic rate, using photosynthesis, hydrogen sulphide or organic compounds as nutrients, are growing faster but have a shorter generation sequence. Prokaryote cells are much smaller than Eukaryote cells and are mostly single living ones. Generally spoken, biological cells are enabled to reproduce about 50 times, called Hayflick limit. Stem cells have a higher reproduction rate and nerve cells hardly at all. Some cells are producing a protein called ‘Telomerase’ and enabled to overcome the Hayflick limit, they are becoming ‘immortal’. However, we have to conclude the process of cloning is already an ingenious exercise of immortalisation by itself.

Eukaryote cells but also all others of previous stages are the organisms we are made of – 100 trillion are building our human body (plus 200 trillions of bacteria). Their cell structure is more complex, DNA Genome is concentrated in the membrane protected nucleus, compared to Prokaryote cells. They have –like prokaryotes – organelles to fulfil physical functions like our inner organs are doing. However, Eukaryote cells are known as building stones of multicellular life. They are moving with slender cytoplasmic projections called flagellas.

In a human body there are about 210 distinct cell types of all historic ages since creation. The cell structure of Eukaryotes is much more complex compared to the Prokaryotes. The DNA genome is located inside the Nucleus and membrane protected. Eukaryotes dispose exclusively of some organelles like mitochondrias, the power engines, which through intake of nutrients and oxygen, produce energy.

They are able to form an early endo-symbiosis. In 1905 the Russian Konstantin Mereschowkowski established the Endosymbiosis theory which today is mostly accepted by scientists. This theory is based on the thought that originally intruding parasitical bacteria lived from cell’s nutrients as well. They became evolutionary involved with processing of nutrition for the cell as well and were then incorporated into cell’s life altogether and settled as organelles, the predecessors of organs in a multi- cellular body.

A well performing assimilation! It may be questioned if this well known fact is considered when treating people medically.

Amoeba is related to Eukaryote cells. The amoeba proteus has 290 billion base pairs in its genome, by contrast human count only for 2.9 billion.

One species of amoeba the xenophyophores was a single cell but grew up to astonishingly 10 cm during the Cambrian period.

Ernst Haeckel presented in 1874 the Colonial Theory, which unite cells as a symbiosis of different organisms of the same species. This theory is still today regarded as valid.

Pluri Cellular (instead Multi cellular) Life is a cooperation having evolved in different shapes. One could describe it as a permanent or temporary cooperation between cells without creation of a merged chromosome basis. Prokaryote cells created early multi or pluri cellular life already billions of years ago (Cyanobacteria).

True Multi cellular life has to solve the problem of regenerating the whole organism and this makes other means than cell division necessary (egg, spores or sperm). It is questionable if Pluricellular organisms took influence on the human metabolism. Many plants are enabled to reproduce not only sexually but also through propagating and this is nothing else than a cloning process, that every gardener knows.

Metabolism is surely the source for energy, mental strength, growth as well as other life activating attributions also for elimination of waste. It is taken generally as one process relating to different parts of the organism.

It is not sufficiently taken care that cells as well as organs are originating from different evolutionary backgrounds but are working as one unit. Therefore the medical advice concentrates on one specific organ or symptom and doesn’t relate to the evolutionary history of specific metabolic processes which were created under different circumstances, for different purposes and different organic conditions, but working as one unit. Medical advice is often concentrated on specific organs or symptoms and disregards generally the sum of metabolic functions and therefore has health threatening consequences like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular problems. These are originated on early developments with unique functions but overall structural influences.

The oldest metabolic process centres inside the cell. Their confirmed age is 2 billion for eukaryotes and at least 4 billion years for Archaea/prokaryotes and probably older – and then there are others like extremophiles, viruses and RNA which could well be 13 billion years old. Expanding and retracting distorted electromagnetic waves are the earliest factors of creation of cell life and resulting in metabolic rhythms, which we should try to balance with a sovereign lifestyle. They are causing the metabolism of the intra cell, the intra-cell metabolism; Inhaling and exhaling is one remnant of the earliest signs of this life. Application of water/salt, sulphuric doses, oxygen and meditation are close to this metabolism, the oldest of them all.

Other metabolic functions were initiated with the symbiosis of bacterial influences especially for the digestive tract. Metabolism relating to domesticated bacteria is the middle aged elementary pattern. The quality of food intake and a regulated lifestyle is the best solution for healthy maintenance of the digestive organs.

By taking antibiotics, the organism reacts and destroys bacterial life. Most of them are assimilated and fulfilling useful functional processes. At least, we should know what we are doing when taking antibiotics. This form of metabolism is already about 2 -3 billion of years old and relates to the domestication of bacterial functions.

The latest evolutionary metabolic addition came with the development of multicellers and is ‘only’ about one billion years old. It is the cleaning process between cells. One could call it Intercell Metabolism. This has to do with physical exercises and moderate lifestyle.